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                Classification compressor oil, performance, application and troubleshooting common problems

                Update Time :2014-05-14The view :2168

                A compressor for compressing the gas, gas pressure or increase gas transportation machinery. With the development of production technology, the type of structure in the form of increasing the compressor. Today, various types of compressors in the petrochemical, machinery manufacturing, civil construction, mining metallurgy, transportation and defense, medical textiles, food and other sectors that are widely used.

                Type 1) compressor, structure, purpose

                Compressor is a general machinery, mainly used for:

                ① compressed gas as a power source for driving the compression member pneumatic machine tools species.

                ② compressed refrigerant (such as ammonia or freon) for cooling;

                ③ compressed feed gas for the synthesis and polymerization;

                ④ compressed gas for hydrorefining oils;

                ⑤ for gas transport and bottling.

                According to the final discharge pressure can be divided into different

                Low pressure compressor discharge pressure <1MPa

                The pressure of the compressor discharge pressure of 1-10MPa

                High-pressure compressor discharge pressure 10-100MPa

                High pressure compressor discharge pressure> 100MPa

                Displacement can be divided according to the size of

                Miniature compressor discharge pressure <3m3/min

                Small compressor discharge pressure 3-10m3/min

                Medium compressor discharge pressure 10-100m3/min

                Large compressor discharge pressure> 100m3/min

                According to shaft power can be divided into

                Miniature compressor power <10kw

                Small compressor power 10-100kw

                Medium compressor power 100-500kw

                Large compressor power> 500kw

                Depending on the compressor media, and process compressors and compressed into force mobility.

                According cylinder compression chamber to the oil deposit is divided into different oil-lubricated compressors and oil lubricated compressor.

                Depending on the manner of its compressed gas compressor displacement and velocity can be divided into two categories.

                ① displacement type compressor

                Reciprocated by the cylinder, the rotary movement of the rotor or changing the working volume, the gas is compressed, the gas pressure increase. Displacement compressor of reciprocating and rotary.

                (1) Reciprocating

                Often in the form of a reciprocating compressor piston wind and diaphragm, respectively, through which the piston reciprocates within the membrane cylinder, with the intake and exhaust valves automatically opened and closed, the suction of gas compression and discharge, characterized by pressure wide industrial applications up to a maximum pressure of 350Mpa (3500kgf/cm2) gas is not continuous. Gas pressure pulse, vibration during operation, in which a piston compressor is the most widely used one, reciprocating compressor according to the compression process is divided into single-stage and multi-stage. Arranged by the relative position of the cylinder is divided into vertical, horizontal, angular, opposed balanced. Diaphragm compressors are driven crank linkage through the liquid membrane work, because the film chamber air tightness, high compression medium clarity. So commonly used in rare gas compression and transportation allowed leakage, flammable, corrosive, radioactive and toxic media. Diaphragm compressors gas is very small, hourly 5-20m3, used for research and production of special purpose. Diaphragm compressor cylinder lubrication is not required, simply by the handle rod lubrication and hydraulic cylinders.

                (2) Rotary

                This is the change in the working volume of the cylinder by means of a rotational movement of the one or more generated by the rotor. The realization of the gas compression capacity of the compressor, a common vane, screw, liquid ring and rotor kinds, including the most widely used type of screw, compared with reciprocating compressors, rotary compressors generally do not exist reciprocating inertia force and torque, so the speed is higher, its simple structure structure, smooth rotation, high reliability, and small size, light weight, small gas pulsation, less wearing parts, so there is a trend to replace conventional piston compressors, but the rotary compressor is among the most used rotary vane compressors and screw compressors. Using a metal slide and drip lubrication, this compressor over the piston simple, but does not solve the problem because the lubrication, friction and wear slide on the cylinder wall greatly restrict its development, and later adopted the injector has cooled lubrication greatly improved, leading to decreased compression temperature, efficiency, life expectancy, but only in a small volume, and the screw compressor, since the two gear together with a rotor (the teeth of the male rotor grooves female rotor) for high-speed rotation of the shell, the volume dependence of the rotor and the casing wall recess posed shrinking realize the gas compression. The injection screw compressor cold, you can remove the synchronization gear, powered by a male rotor directly to the female rotor, so that simplified structure that effectively lubricate the rotor surface, increase the service life of the compressor.

                ② speed of the compressor

                Speed type (turbo-type) compressor is a centrifugal impeller made by high-speed rotation, the gas obtained at high speed, then slow down dramatically into a fixed diffuser, so that the gas velocity energy into pressure energy. Speed compressor is usually a large displacement compressors. Its structure is simple and compact, moving parts with only one blade impeller. Work flow without pulsation vibration, and has cut off gas control and lubricating characteristics, the compressed gas is not oil, it has developed rapidly in recent years, increasingly wide range of applications, according to the direction of flow of gas to the impeller can be divided into centrifugal , axial and mixed flow three. Ⅱ

                (1) Axial:

                Its main features are the impeller rotates, the gas from the axial suction, obtained through the impeller speed, and then discharged from the axial vanes, the increase in pressure, and then go to the next level, step by step booster. Axial compressor is mainly used for large-scale blast furnace, natural gas, petroleum refining and large system devices. Low pressure, large displacement compressor role as a general.

                (2) centrifugal compressor

                When the spindle drive which features high-speed rotating impeller, gas from the axial suction, and was thrown high centrifugal impeller, there are pressurized into effect in the fixed guide vanes. Here the gas flow rate decreases and the gas pressure is increased, and was then further fed to the second booster stage centrifugal compressor is mainly used in oil refining, chemical fertilizer production of large industries, especially for compression and corrosion toxic gases.

                (3) Francis compressor (oblique flow diagonal type)

                It features the impeller rotates, the gas from the axial suction and axial impeller into about 45 °, with its low-pressure axial high pressure centrifugal, two machine series, no coolers, Francis narrow range, usually in pressure and moderate displacement.

                2) compressor lubrication

                Compressor lubrication is mainly relative friction surface to form a film, to reduce their wear, energy, cooling, seal, different forms of structural characteristics of the compressor due to the working conditions of the lubricating properties of the different media and compression, so the quality and use of compressor oil requirements are not the same. Since the majority of the volume of compressor lubricants in direct contact with the compressed medium, vulnerable nature of the effect of gas compression, prone to failure due to lubrication caused in other industrial machinery does not have, so the capacity of the compressor oil should be chosen very carefully.

                ① reciprocating compressor lubrication

                Reciprocating compressor lubrication systems can be divided into direct contact with the part of the external lubrication and cooling with compressed gas. Mainly refers to internal lubrication inside the cylinder lubrication, sealing and rust. After the completion of the internal lubrication mission together with the compressed gas is discharged. Lubricate the exhaust valve, part of the separation are separated back out of the reservoir into the cylinder and piping, so internal lubrication is a total loss lubrication.

                ② internal lubrication roughly three ways:

                (1) splash lubrication, mostly for non-small general-purpose compressor crosshead.

                (2) Oil lubrication, which is a small amount of lubricating oil in the compressor intake by inhalation, the splash lubrication can not be used in non-crosshead compressors.

                (3) pressure grease lubrication

                The approach is to use the oil oiler certain speed injection cylinder lubrication points. Small capacity compressor crankshaft driven oiler, and a large-capacity compressor, motor-driven oiler often alone, adjust the pressure oiling when the computer is required to further increase the amount of oil 75%, to overcome the counter-pressure cylinder, the pressure oiling the biggest advantage with a minimum amount of oil always reaches the most reasonable lubricating friction surfaces, are widely used in compressors and other crosshead has a large capacity high-pressure compressor.

                ③ external lubrication:

                Reciprocating motion mechanism is mainly pressure lubrication, which is characterized by abundant oil, lubricating fully and effectively take away the friction dust, the size of the main bearing rod end bearing lubrication, wide on each compressor is used.

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